Angina is how the heart tells us that not enough oxygen for what is required to do so. This happens when the coronary arteries (arteries supplying the heart with blood) are blocked due process of atherosclerosis. Following this process, is deposited on artery wall fat calcified plaque, which will reduce blood flow to that level. Another cause of angina is the situation where effort is required than the capacity of the heart that she is or where it needs more oxygen than normal. Angina appear in other diseases such as anemia, aortic valve disease, cardiac arrhythmias, or excessive thyroid functioning.
Coronary heart disease is leading cause of death worldwide. In the US, for example, annually, over 1.5 million people are myocardial infarction and one third of them die from stroke. Overall, heart disease kills more people than all other causes of death combined. Angina is particularly common in those aged over 30 years and is more common in men. And considering the fact that at least one third of the population over 30 suffers from hypertension, we can appreciate exactly how serious the situation in this perspective.
What is Angina Pectoris?
The medical term is angina refers literally to a specific pain, occurring in the thorax. There are several types of angina, the classic bearing the name of stable angina. It is determined by a certain effort and disappears at rest. If you have stable angina, surely you are able to arrange activities which triggers your angina.
Another type of angina is unstable angina. It is a progressive condition worse, which may occur during rest or sleep, but may be provided in any way. Unstable angina should be interpreted as a sign of severe heart damage, which precedes, sooner or later, a heart attack.
How does appear myocardial infarction?
Myocardial infarction, or heart attack, as it is called, occurs when part of the heart muscle is completely devoid of blood and heart muscle cells die because of this. A heart attack can occur when plaque inside the heart arteries breaks forming a clot that blocks blood flow through the artery. Such plate is formed from cholesterol, leukocytes, calcium and other components and is surrounded by a fibrous capsule. If pressure and blood flow increases suddenly, the fibrous capsule may crack or break. As a result, the body receives signals to fix the inner lining of the artery affected, how it heals a cut outside, forming a clot to seal the area. A blood clot that forms in the arteries can restrict blood flow to heart muscle and cause such an attack.
How myocardial infarction occurs?multiple symptoms, but chest pain is most relevant. Pain caused by a heart attack usually lasts longer than 10 minutes and often other symptoms, including:
– chest discomfort or pain unbearable, as if a weight on his chest – the pain is spreading from the breast to the neck, jaw, one or both arms and shoulders and does not go to sleep;
– shorter, more frequent breaths;
– nausea or vomiting;
– rapid or irregular heartbeat.
It is important to recognize the early stages of a heart attack and receive immediate care. Treatment is necessary to prevent death. Sometimes medicines can be taken to reduce heart muscle damage caused by a heart attack.
– You know you’re a patient with heart problems and pain occurred more than five minutes it takes. In this case, it is likely to make a heart.
– You first such pain. You need to elucidate which appears.
– Crises become more intense, more frequent, more prolonged and can’t be predicted. It is possible to develop an unstable angina.
– After taking medicines, particularly in the beginning, you have unpleasant sensations. They are sometimes the result of side effects and dosage should be adjusted.
Symptoms of Angina Pectoris
– Pain is the most important sign. It is initially located in the middle of the chest and often radiates to the upper left to the neck or the abdomen. Chest pain contractions create a powerful feeling, which raises a whole chest claws. Some refer this pain only to a peripheral (arm, neck). Sometimes, because of association with retrosternal burning pain is mistaken for indigestion. Each time, however, has the same pain location and radiation of the same person.
– Chest pain lasting more than 5 minutes. If it takes longer and is kind heart, this pain can be very likely consequence of a myocardial infarction the pain lasts for hours.
– In case of stable angina, exercise pointed out above, pain can be caused by other circumstances such as a rich meal, exposure to cold, strong emotion, sex, etc.. There are also a number of drugs, some trivial, such as those we make when we have a stuffy nose, which can cause angina crisis.
– The pain occurs during exercise and rest it disappears.
– Other symptoms that can occur are: anxiety, fatigue, cold sweats, blurred vision. All these however are not specific signs.
A number of risk coexistence factors are more likely to help angina emerge: hypertension, high cholesterol or fat metabolism disorders, smoking, obesity, immediate family members who had heart disease.
How can you know whether you have Angina?
If you have chest pain, you should ask a doctor can determine if these pains are cardiac or not. You probably will do an electrocardiogram and a so-called stress test. This test will ask you to make a gradual effort, overseen by a medical bike or a treadmill, while the activity of your heart will be monitored. If angina occurs in such an effort and has a correspondent on the electrocardiogram, is clear: you have a coronary. But if things are not clear or you want a more thorough investigation, it can make an echocardiogram or a complex form of assessment called coronary angiography, a method that identifies the location and size of stenosis that you have on coronary vessels.
What do you do next?
If you have Angina, your doctor will decide what medication to follow and what lifestyle you should have. If the problem is more advanced, we can discuss the need for more aggressive intervention on the heart, even going so far in the operation. Note, however: no matter what medication you take – and today are highly effective drugs – it will act only on the effects of atherosclerosis. So any medicine you take, remember that equally important are lifestyle-related measures: a proper diet, exercise, weight control, smoking elimination.
What you can do at home?
– If you have frequent bouts of angina at night, sleep with the head or chest even higher. Will you make an effort so your heart when it pumps less blood through the veins to the heart.
– If you feel a crisis emerges, angina, stop any activity (stop the car if you drive), sit (if standing), and if the pain persists, take your medicine you’re used to.
– Aspirin taken to the medical advice in a very low dose ,significantly reduces the risk of myocardial infarction and unstable angina .
– After dining, rest a while. Digestion effort “steals” blood from the heart, directing it to the digestive organs.
– Do not smoke. Clearly, nicotine adversely affects the highest degree, the occurrence of angina crises.
– If you are taking contraceptive pills and angina, turn them off. Estrogen content they increase the risk of blood clotting.
The role of Diet in heart disease (Coronary Heart Disease and Myocardial Infarction)should exclude saturated fats (up 20% of daily calorie needs to be provided by fat, and of these, two thirds are unsaturated fats). This diet will contribute to a better control of blood pressure.
Strict vegetarian diet (or total vegetarian, no animal products) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids can lead to regression of coronary atherosclerosis lesions. Recent studies clearly demonstrate increased exercise capacity in patients with angina pectoris who have adopted such a diet.
The risk of myocardial infarction can be prevented only at a rate of 8% in the treatment of hypertension can prevent increasing to 30% by treatment of lipid metabolism disorders.
Get used to eat small meals that are easier to digest! Do not leave the table never satiated! Avoid cold drinks, which may precipitate angina crisis.
Diet recommendations used to combine data from arteriosclerosis and hypertension.
Specific recommendations for a patient to make episodes of angina pectoris or experienced a acute myocardial infarction are:
– Eliminate caffeine and other methylxanthines (coffee, cola drinks) to reduce the potential for cardiac arrhythmias;
– Reduce cardiac work by smaller meals with food or liquid light (immediately after heart attack: 800 – 1200kcal/day)
– Restriction of fluid and salt (sodium) by associated diseases (heart failure, hypertension);
– Avoid foods too hot or too cold.
Angina pectoris is a serious disease. Take it seriously!
By University Lecturer Dr. Leonard Azamfirei
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