Health Articles

Ensuring health and safety from birth to age 2

This topic advises parents and baby sitters on ways to prevent illness and accidental injuries in infants and young children.

It is not able to cover each risk posed to the child.However, the subject treated most common hazards in order to minimize the risk of infections and injuries and identify areas and situations that can be dangerous for a child aged up to 2 years.

Why are health and safety important for infants and toddlers?

9 months later

Nine Months Later

Children aged up to 2 years are not yet able to understand and recognize the many dangers that threaten their physical health. Parents need to take steps to keep babies and young children daily risks encountered both inside and outside the home.
Also, infants and young children are continually exposed to a variety of germs. Children aged up to 2 years have immature immune systems, which makes them vulnerable to bacterial and viral infections. They also have a higher risk of developing complications from these infections. Child’s exposure to germs may be limited by practicing good hygiene.

What are the most common risks?

Road accidents are the leading cause of injury and death for children aged up to 2 years, followed by drowning.
Other common injuries are:
-inecarea or strangulation
-caderile, such as those of the playground equipment, stairs, or various items of furniture
-ranile caused by firearms
-muscaturile animals.

How can I protect my child from illness?

Many diseases can be prevented by avoiding close contact with people who are sick, frequently washing your child’s hands regularly performed, disinfecting toys and surfaces and timely vaccination of children, in order immunization against various childhood diseases.
The child can be protected from diseases transmitted by food (fecal-oral transmission) by preparing, serving and storing food safely. For example, the meat must be stored in a location separate from other foods and cooked to the recommended internal temperature, frozen food debris must be properly and parents need to have some selectivity in choosing restaurants where you eat

The types of equipment are associated with an increased risk of the development of trauma?


Any equipment that you buy for your child or parent, should meet all safety standards and be in good operating condition.
Car seats, cribs, strollers, high chairs and pens are used frequently in infants and young children aged up to 2 years, who have just learned to walk.
If the parent buy or borrow equipment used, it must ensure that it meets current safety standards and was not subject to return due to non-compliance with these standards. Also, the equipment must be examined carefully for any worn or damaged components.
The child should be carefully supervised by parents during use of equipment available to all and used in common, such as shopping carts or restaurant high chairs that can sometimes only meet minimum safety standards. Also, surface cleaning equipment commonly used by everyone using disposable cloths can prevent the child’s exposure to viruses and bacteria.

To what extent the stress level of the parent affect the child’s safety?

Most injuries in children occur when parents are tired, hungry, exhausted emotionally or when difficulties in their relationships.
Other common causes of family stress changes daily routine, relocation or the birth of the next child.
To have and to protect a child is a huge responsibility, which can be extremely stressful for some parents. It is important for parents to recognize their limits and autoingrijeasca.
Contents article

Healthy habits for the prevention of infection and disease
Safety measures at home
Safety measures outside the home
Self-care parent
Healthy habits for the prevention of infection and disease
The immune system of infants and children aged up to 24 months, is still in a process of development and maturation. Because of this, children are prone to illness after exposure to viruses and bacteria. Frequent exposure to pathogens can occur through close contact between two people or preparing food in unsanitary conditions. Practicing good hygiene by the parent, can protect your child from exposure to these germs.

Catering safe

The child can be protected from disease by the parent, using carefully practices in food preparation safely. The parent has a duty to prepare food safely. It can reduce the likelihood of illness of the child by washing hands, keeping the kitchen clean and proper food preparation salubrious conditions.
Father must be cautious when going shopping. Fresh food must be stored separately to prevent cross contamination. He must scrutinize all products and not buy those that show signs of damage or deterioration.
Food should be prepared safely. Meat and foods that have come in contact with raw meat must be cooked at high temperatures to prevent bacterial growth. Specific temperature varies depending on the type of food.

Storing food safely

Food temperature should be maintained at a safe level that will prevent the growth of bacteria that cause illness. Also, special attention should be paid when paying using breast milk or formula milk for feeding bottle. Bacteria grow quickly in warm breastmilk or formula milk left at room temperature. After feeding bottle baby breast-milk or formula milk-left in the glass must be removed. Fresh milk or formula milk mother should be stored in the refrigerator promptly, if not used immediately. Also, all containers must be cleaned and disinfected before each use.

Read labels on food packaging


The parent must be informed of the expiry dates of perishable goods before they buy or consume. Also, any food preparation instructions to be followed, such as for example the temperature and time of preparation.
Father must ensure that restaurants where you eat, prepare food safely.

Protection against the spread of disease and germs

Germs spread quickly from person to person. Influenza viruses that cause the common cold and usually affects the most people during cold seasons, although they may act practically any time of year. Infants and young children are at increased risk of developing secondary bacterial infections from these diseases (superinfection). The parent has a duty to take extra precautions to protect baby against infections.
The child must be immunized. Immunization, which are also called vaccinations help protect children from disease. Immunizations are starting at birth and are scheduled throughout childhood.
Using basic hygienic measures in public places. Father child avoid exposure to large crowds of people, whether it was recently sick or have weakened immune systems, especially where there is an outbreak of a contagious disease. It can also be useful to have on hand father disposable cloths and disinfectant to clean hands and could wipe shopping carts or other objects used in common in public places.
Avoid close contact with sick people obviously. Also, if the child is ill, contact with other children in the contagious period should be avoided. The parent must contact their physician if the child knows the exact time or contagious.
Wash hands frequently, especially after every nappy change. Keeping hands clean is a way out, but often overlooked, to prevent the spread of germs. The baby’s hands should be washed after each bowel movement because it can achieve its parent’s bottom without noticing dirty.
Washing and disinfection of surfaces and toys. Areas where there are germs, such as the kitchen or bathroom should be kept clean and disinfected frequently.
Father would have time to teach the child to practice healthy habits of hygiene, especially if he spends time around other children, such as, for example, the nursery. For example, the parent must teach the child to cover his mouth when coughing or sneezing, using a tissue preferably so that germs do not get on your hands. The child should be taught to blow his nose with a napkin. It is possible that infants and young children do not understand the instructions parent, but their repetition will help them remember these concepts as they grow.
Influenza vaccination of children. Vaccination with inactivated influenza virus is recommended for:
fill all healthy children aged between 6 and 23 months
-All children aged at least 6 months and who have certain medical conditions (such as asthma, chronic heart or lung disease or a weakened immune system) that increase the risk of influenza complications
-fratii, sisters and close contacts of children aged up to 23 months or children of any age who are at high risk of influenza complications.
Healthy people aged between 5 and 49 years can be immunized using nasal spray instead of injectable vaccine.

Regular visits to the doctor

Father must ensure that appropriate schedule doctor visits, during which he performed physical examination of the child. The doctor will examine the parent about the child’s growth mode or with the existence of any reason for concern.
Immunization protects children against disease strongly aggressive. The standard recommended vaccinations and immunizations shows the age at which they should be performed.

Safety measures at home

From the moment of birth until the age of 2 years, the child’s safety is dependent on parents and babysitters. Security measures change and grow rapidly in number as the infant begins to walk.
In current and future risk assessment is important to consider the child’s psychomotor development.
Although close supervision is very important, it is not realistic to believe that a parent can track every movement of the child.
Also, excessive pursuit of the child may limit its experience and confidence. Keeping a balance between supervision and precautions will prevent accidents and injuries and allow the child to explore and discover. Time allocation for research and adopting healthy habits can help prevent common accidents and injuries that can occur in the home.

Using safe products for children

Father must use baby products that work safely.
In the United States safety standards for baby equipment, furniture, clothing and other items are set by the Consumer Product Safety Commission.
Although most likely purchased products meet these standards, it may be that older products used previously and not to make it. It is possible that the equipment has been used before, such as for example shopping cart, is not sure. Such products may be damaged and worn, which affects their performance.
Consumer Product Safety Commission has returned some products due to unpleasant accident happened.
Father must check that products meet current standards used by the child. The following list provides information about items commonly used by children aged up to 2 years:
-patuturile should meet all safety standards, such as a distance of 2.4 inches (6.1 cm) between slats; lowering the mattress and removal of mobile toys, bulky and bumper, as the child grows
-premergatoarele should not be used, in accordance with the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics; if you still decide to use a walker, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends only using the series “ASTM F977-96” that meet international safety standards
-tarcurile should have nets whose space does not exceed 0.25 inch (0.6 cm); distance between shavings should not exceed 2.4 inch (6.1 cm); parents must be careful in choosing toys that you put in the pen; as the child grows, there is a risk that he stuck on mobile toys or toys greater use that to climb to get out of the pen
high -scaunele should have a broad-based and stable; use of seat that attaches to the table should be avoided; parent must always ensure that the seat is secured in an upright position before use; Safety belts must be used and the child should be supervised at all times while sitting in high chair
-mesele changing diapers should have bumpers on all sides and having 2 inch (5.1 cm) tall; an area of diapers changed slightly hollowed table is also recommended; Always use safety belts and child should be held with one hand; diapers and other necessary items must be available to the parent, but so that the child can not reach them.
To keep track of all the important safety measures, parents should consult the checklist of safety equipment in kindergarten.

Sleeping safely and sudden infant death syndrome

Sudden infant death syndrome, is one of the most common causes of death in infants between 1 and 12 months. Most infants who die after sudden death syndrome are aged between 2 and 4 months. Although the syndrome can not be predicted or prevented completely, positioning the child in a back sleeping position can prevent this tragedy.

preventing falls

Many fall accidents can be prevented by giving special attention and use of equipment that meets all safety standards.
Father must identify all risks to the baby or will be exposed once you learn to crawl and walk:
-Once the child has learned to walk, all doors to be closed potentially dangerous areas
-use sliding doors on both sides of the stairs; use doors that fold should be avoided because the baby’s head can get caught between them; Seeking to be a door whose opening is not more than 2.4 inch (6.1cm)
-Installation protective nets on windows
-children should not be allowed to climb on furniture high
-Avoiding use of baby walkers
-parintele must be vigilant when using equipment such as high chairs and diaper changing tables; Always use safety belts and child must be watched carefully.

Choking food

Drowning baby food can be prevented by feeding with adequate food and a focus on the parent, to prevent any accidents:
-parintele must learn to recognize signs of drowning food and act promptly; for example, a child who is choking can not talk, cry, breathe or coughed
-parintele must know how to select and food preparation; for example, recommends choosing soft foods that can be cut into small pieces, such as carrots boiled
-I have established some areas the child to eat, such as for example the kitchen or living room; child has learned to sit down meals and chew thoroughly; he should not be forced to eat when not hungry; These measures will help your child develop and practice healthy habits of eating, lifelong
-I consider the fact that the infant or small child can drown small things; in general, objects with a diameter less than 1.3 inch (3.3 cm) represents a risk of accidental drowning; children should not have access to these objects; rubber bands or deflated balloons should not be allowed in the house, in places where the child can find
-Also, small children should not be allowed to eat candy, hard candy or chewing gum.

Strangulation and suffocation

Small child can strangle with a variety of household items.
He must be protected by minimizing the probability of occurrence umatoarelor accidents:
-children should not have access to cords curtains; cords must be secured tightly and wrapped around wall brackets; parents should definitely check if there are nodes in the seams and cut any loops
-Use doors that fold should be avoided; infant or toddler can catch her head in the door and can strangle
-parintele must ensure that the items of furniture that can access child shows no holes or areas in which the child can catch head.
Choking is another hazard to young children. The child should be educated about the importance and necessity choking game in a safe and risk-free.
Must pay particular attention to prevent possible choking hazard, such as:
-limitation access to car trunk; devices lowering the rear seat of the car to be kept closed so children can not climb into the trunk from inside the car; also the car doors locked and the keys must always should be kept in sight, so that the child can have access to them
-frigiderele and freezers, even those that are not in use; if stored in an old refrigerator or freezer door must be removed
-sacii plastic: the child should not be allowed to play with plastic bags and they shall be stored so that it can not access them; many children love to play with and bags and put them in the head.


Poisoning prevention can be done by:
-Identify cleaning products and other chemicals, plants, medicines and other products that can harm children when they eat or inhale them
-depozitarea of these products, so that the child can not access them.
In case of a medical emergency caused by a poisoning emergency services should be contacted.
Lead poisoning is another cause for concern in young children can chew pieces of dried paint or painted objects. Currently not contain lead paint, but those on the walls and other surfaces of older homes are still on the lead. Tests must be made in determining the composition of the paint, where the father is not sure if it is lead-based or not.
Preventing carbon monoxide poisoning is through frequent monitoring of levels of carbon monoxide inside the house and the adoption of precautionary measures, such as for example, annual verification of the heating system of the house. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless and tasteless, which result from the combustion of fuels such as gasoline, gasoline, oil or wood used as fuel (for example, internal heating systems, car motors, appliances for cooking or burning) . Elevated levels of carbon monoxide quickly affects the health of young children due to the immaturity of their defense systems.

Accidents caused by fire

Home fires can be prevented by keeping and maintaining good working smoke detectors and by building and lodging output in case of a fire.


Burns caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, radiation or friction. Protecting children from injuries by firing can be done by the parent by identifying possible hazards inside the house and taking measures to block child access to them.
Burns caused by heat can be prevented by avoiding contact with fire child, steam, hot water or other liquids and hot objects. Bottled milk formulas or breast milk should not be heated in a microwave oven as hot droplets of liquid can burn the mouth and throat of a child. The parent should consider buying some flame resistant pajamas for the child.
Electrical burns can be prevented by limiting access to the child and the use of insulated electrical cables secure all electrical devices. During lightning storms, the child must be kept indoors and away from windows.
Chemical burns can be prevented by limiting access to all of chemical substances existing child in the home. Acids, such as for example those coming from car batteries and alkaline products such as cleansers substances are extremely dangerous.
Burns caused by sun exposure (by radiation) can cause permanent damage to the skin of the child. Infants aged up to 6 months should not even be exposed to sunlight. Also, young children should not be exposed to sunlight or must use protective creams when you leave the house.
Friction burns are usually minor trauma. Games harsh or falls can cause such burns in infants and young children


Security measures related to the use of firearms should be established for all homes, especially those where children live or come to visit. All weapons should be kept locked in a closet, and downloaded so that children can not access them.


Domestic animals are found in many households. Children living in homes without animals come into contact with them in other media. Many accidents can be prevented by teaching the child to interact appropriately with animals. Similarly, it is unlikely that owners train their pets and take charge of their health to have problems when children are around.
The child must learn how to interact with the animals. Father has to explain to the child that animals can hurt you when they are frightened, injured, or when they occur they eat their young.
Pet must be trained and prepared to act appropriately when they are around children. It is unlikely that a pet well trained and obedient to hurt a child.


Drowning is the second leading cause of death after road accidents among children younger than 5 years. The child should not be left unattended near a water. Also, follow the recommendations for prevention of drowning, established by the American Council for Safety, Consumer Product Safety Commission and the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Overall supervision of all bathing. Father must always stand at a distance of one arm and not his child and never leave your baby alone in the bath, even if a big brother is present in the bath or tub.

Control of access to water supply. Large water reservoirs, such as a pond or pool, be fenced. All buckets and freezer bags should be emptied when not in use. The lids of the toilet should be kept down and secured with security locks.

Providing child safety in areas with pools. When visiting public or private pools, the parent should not sit at a distance of more than one child or arm. If own pool, parents must ensure that it meets all local safety codes. They can usually be found at the city planning department. Children’s access to irrigation channels should be limited. The child should not be allowed to play in or near irrigation channels. In addition to these precautions, the parent must acquire first aid measures and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. These measures can make the difference between life and death.
Safety measures outside the home

The child can not be protected from every danger that you may encounter outside the home. However, some can be taken reasonable precautions and child can be trained in basic safety rules. These general training can help prepare children for a variety of situations that he or she may face. Accidents can be prevented by using safe equipment, promoting awareness of child safety and careful supervision.

Father must always use car seats for kids. Road accidents are the leading cause of death among young children. Many injuries and deaths can be avoided by proper use of seat belts. Every journey by car, parents must ensure that the infant or small child is safely secured in car seat correctly installed and that meets all current safety standards. Because regulations vary from state to state and may not include important factors that protect the baby as much as possible, parents must ensure they comply with the basic guidelines established by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Until the child reaches one year of age and weighs 20 lb. (9.1 kg), you should use a special car seat for infants who support and be positioned facing the back seat. After that, use a chair placed back on the seat until the child reaches a weight of 40 lb. (18.1 kg). Some infant car seats can be converted into seats for young children who have learned to walk.
The child must learn to handle the streets.

The parent must train their child about the dangers of cars and streets.
The child must learn to behave properly when they are around animals. The parent must teach the child how to react in contact with different types of pets and other animals, he or she may come in contact outside the home.

Small child must learn to swim properly. Knowledge of proper behavior in water or near water can help prevent a choking hazard. The ownership of a private pools, all safety precautions must be taken; if residence is near irrigation channels, the child should be instructed not to play in them or near them.

Child in stroller ride safely. The child must be secured with seatbelts and closely supervised.
Before visiting the child in a home that he is not familiar, the homeowner should ask about dangerous areas, pets or other items that may threaten the safety of the child. It can also be useful for parents to visit that home first, to convince about the possible dangers. Father must not have any restraint in raising any suspicions about child safety. In fact, the parent is responsible for protecting the child.
Before enrolling children in kindergarten, parents must evaluates the medium and discuss with staff. He has to question staff about safety instructions. Any potential risks that must be identified and questioned staff on how to solve such problems. You have inspected the area where food is prepared and cleaned asked how often and how cleaning products are used.

Involving children in different activities

When the father of her child include in its activities, he must be aware of the risks of that activity. The focus should be only on the child’s comfort and safety.
Providing child safety during transport or in different carriages. You must use seatbelts and follow the instructions printed. For example, instructions on shopping carts should avoid placing the child in an area reserved for items purchased.
Father must judge well before transporting the child or bike in a chair or in a sidecar. The additional seats on the bike and atasele pose risks to children. It is preferable that the parent to wait a while until your child grows and can go it alone or bike. However, some cases are associated with lower risks of developing trauma, such as for example riding on special tracks that do not allow motorized vehicles circulate.

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